SAS Interview Questions and Answers

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The following is a list of frequently asked SAS interview questions which covers basic, intermediate and advanced concepts of SAS. It covers topics on reading data into SAS, data manipulation, reporting, SQL queries and SAS Macros. It includes questions ranging from simple theoretical concepts of SAS to tricky SAS Interview questions.

Part II : Advanced SAS Interview Questions and Answers

1. Difference between INPUT and INFILE

The INFILE statement is used to identify an external file while the INPUT statment is used to describe your variables.
FILENAME TEST 'C:\DEEP\File1.xls';
DATA READIN;
INFILE TEST;
LENGTH NAME $25;
INPUT ID NAME$ SEX;
RUN;
Note : The variable name, followed by $ (dollar sign), idenfities the variable type as character.

In the example shown above, ID and SEX are numeric variables and Name a character variable.



2. Difference between Informat and Format

Informats read the data while Formats write the data.

Informat - To tell SAS that a number should be read in a particular format.

For example: the informat mmddyy6. tells SAS to read the number 121713 as the date December 17, 2013.

Format - To tell SAS how to print the variables.



3. Difference between Missover and Truncover

Missover - When the MISSOVER option is used on the INFILE statement, the INPUT statement does not jump to the next line when reading a short line. Instead, MISSOVER sets variables to missing.

Truncover - It assigns the raw data value to the variable even if the value is shorter than the length that is expected by the INPUT statement.

The following is an example of an external file that contains data:

1
22
333
4444

This DATA step uses the numeric informat 4. to read a single field in each record of raw data and to assign values to the variable ID.
data readin;
infile 'external-file' missover;
input ID4.;
run;

proc print data=readin;
run;

The output is shown below :
Obs    ID

 1          .
 2          .
 3          .
 4      4444

Truncover
data readin;
infile 'external-file' truncover;
input ID4.;
run;

proc print data=readin;
run;

The output is shown below :
Obs    ID

 1      1
 2      22
 3      333
 4      4444


4. Purpose of double trailing @@ in Input Statement ?

The double trailing sign (@@) tells SAS rather than advancing to a new record, hold the current input record for the execution of the next INPUT statement.

DATA Readin;
   Input Name $ Score @@;   
   cards;
Sam 25 David 30 Ram 35
Deeps 20 Daniel 47 Pars 84
   ;
RUN;

The output is shown below :
Double Trailing



5. How to include or exclude specific variables in a data set?

- DROP, KEEP Statements and Data set Options

DROP, KEEP Statement


The DROP statement specifies the names of the variables that you want to remove from the data set.
data readin1;
set readin;
drop score;
run;
The KEEP statement specifies the names of the variables that you want to retain from the data set.
data readin1;
set readin;
keep var1;
run;
DROP, KEEP Data set Options

The main difference between DROP/ KEEP statement and DROP=/ KEEP=data set option is that you can not use DROP/KEEP statement in procedures.
data readin1 (drop=score);
set readin;
run;

data readin1 (keep=var1);
set readin;
run;


6. How to print observations 5 through 10 from a data set?

The FIRSTOBS= and OBS= data set options would tell SAS to print observations 5 through 10 from the data set READIN.
proc print data = readin (firstobs=5 obs=10);
run;


7. What are the default statistics that PROC MEANS produce?

PROC MEANS produce the “default” statistics of N, MIN, MAX, MEAN and STD DEV.

Proc Means : Detailed Explanation


8. Name and describe functions that you have used for data cleaning?
SAS Character Functions


9. Difference between FUNCTION and PROC

Example : MEAN function and PROC MEANS


The MEAN function is an average of the value of several variables in one observation.

The average that is calculated for a PROC MEANS is the sum of all of the values of a variable divided by the number of observations in the variable.

In other words, The MEAN function will SUM across the row and a procedure will SUM down a column.

MEAN Function
AVG=MEAN (of Q1 - Q3);
See the output below :
MEAN Function Output

PROC MEANS
PROC MEANS DATA=READIN MEAN;
RUN;
The output is shown below :
PROC MEANS Output



10. Differences between WHERE and IF statement?

For detailed explanation, see this tutorial - SAS : Where Vs IF .
  1. WHERE statement can be used in procedures to subset data while IF statement cannot be used in procedures.
  2. WHERE can be used as a data set option while IF cannot be used as a data set option.
  3. WHERE statement is more efficient than IF statement. It tells SAS not to read all observations from the data set
  4. WHERE statement can be used to search for all similar character values that sound alike while IF statement cannot be used.
  5. WHERE statement can not be used when reading data using INPUT statement whereas IF statement can be used.
  6. Multiple IF statements can be used to execute multiple conditional statements 
  7. When it is required to use newly created variables, use IF statement as it doesn't require variables to exist in the READIN data set


11. What is Program Data Vector (PDV)? 

PDV is a logical area in the memory.

How PDV is created?

SAS creates a dataset one observation at a time. Input buffer is created at the time of compilation, for holding a record from external file. PDV is created followed by the creation of input buffer. SAS builds dataset in the PDV area of memory.

Detailed Explanation : How PDV Works



12. What is DATA _NULL_

The DATA _NULL_ is mainly used to create macro variables. It can also be used to write output without creating a dataset. The idea of "null" here is that we have a data step that actually doesn't create a data set.



13. What is the difference between '+' operator and SUM function

 SUM function returns the sum of non-missing arguments whereas “+” operator returns a missing value if any of the arguments are missing.

Suppose we have a data set containing three variables - X, Y and Z. They all have missing values. We wish to compute sum of all the variables.

data mydata2;
set mydata;
a=sum(x,y,z);
p=x+y+z;
run;

The output is shown in the image below :
SAS : SUM Function vs Plus Operator
In the output, value of p is missing for 4th, 5th and 6th observations.



14. How to identify and remove unique and duplicate values? 

1. Use PROC SORT with NODUPKEY and NODUP Options.
2. Use First. and Last. Variables - Detailed Explanation

The detailed explanation is shown below :

SAMPLE DATA SET
ID Name Score
1David45
1David74
2Sam45
2Ram54
3Bane87
3Mary92
3Bane87
4Dane23
5Jenny87
5Ken87
6Simran63
8Priya72

Create this data set in SAS
data readin;
input ID Name $ Score;
cards;
1 David 45
1 David 74
2 Sam 45
2 Ram 54
3 Bane 87
3 Mary 92
3 Bane 87
4 Dane 23
5 Jenny 87
5 Ken 87
6 Simran 63
8 Priya 72;
run;

There are several ways to identify and remove unique and duplicate values:

PROC SORT 

In PROC SORT, there are two options by which we can remove duplicates.

1. NODUPKEY Option               2. NODUP Option

The NODUPKEY option removes duplicate observations where value of a variable listed in BY statement is repeated while NODUP option removes duplicate observations where values in all the variables are repeated (identical observations).
PROC SORT DATA=readin NODUPKEY;
BY ID;
RUN;
PROC SORT DATA=readin NODUP;
BY ID;
RUN;
The output is shown below :
SAS : NODUPKEY vs NODUP

The NODUPKEY has deleted 5 observations with duplicate values whereas NODUP has not deleted any observations.

Why no value has been deleted when NODUP option is used?

Although ID 3 has two identical records (See observation 5 and 7), NODUP option has not removed them. It is because they are not next to one another in the dataset and SAS only looks at one record back.

To fix this issue, sort on all the variables in the dataset READIN
To sort by all the variables without having to list them all in the program, you can use the keywork ‘_ALL_’ in the BY statement (see below).


The output is shown below :
SAS NODUP Output





15. Difference between NODUP and NODUPKEY Options? 

The NODUPKEY option removes duplicate observations where value of a variable listed in BY statement is repeated while NODUP option removes duplicate observations where values in all the variables are repeated (identical observations).

See the detailed explanation for this question above (Q14). 



16. What are _numeric_ and _character_ and what do they do?

1. _NUMERIC_ specifies all numeric variables that are already defined in the current DATA step.
2. _CHARACTER_ specifies all character variables that are currently defined in the current DATA step.
3. _ALL_ specifies all variables that are currently defined in the current DATA step.

Example : To include all the numeric variables in PROC MEANS
proc means;
var _numeric_;
run;
Tutorial : Specify a list of variables

17. How to sort in descending order?

Use DESCENDING keyword in PROC SORT code. The example below shows the use of the descending keyword.

PROC SORT DATA=auto;
  BY DESCENDING engine ;
RUN ;


18. Under what circumstances would you code a SELECT construct instead of IF statements?

When you have a long series of mutually exclusive conditions and the comparison is numeric, using a SELECT group is slightly more efficient than using IF-THEN or IF-THEN-ELSE statements because CPU time is reduced.

The syntax for SELECT WHEN is as follows :

SELECT (condition);
   WHEN (1) x=x;
   WHEN (2) x=x*2;
   OTHERWISE x=x-1;
END;

Example :

SELECT (str);
   WHEN ('Sun') wage=wage*1.5;
   WHEN ('Sat') wage=wage*1.3;
   OTHERWISE DO;
wage=wage+1;
bonus=0;
END;
END;


19. How to convert a numeric variable to a character variable?

You must create a differently-named variable using the PUT function.

The example below shows the use of the PUT function.

charvar=put(numvar, 7.) ; 


20. How to convert a character variable to a numeric variable?

You must create a differently-named variable using the INPUT function.

The example below shows the use of the INPUT function.

numvar=input(charvar,4.0);


21. What's the difference between VAR A1 - A3 and VAR A1 -- A3?

Single Dash : It is used to specify consecutively numbered variables. A1-A3 implies A1, A2 and A3.

Double-dash : It is used to specify variables based on the order of the variables as they appear in the file, regardless of the name of the variable. A1--A3 implies all the variables from A1 to A3 in the order they appear in the data set.

Example : The order of variables in a data set  :  ID Name A1 A2 C1 A3

So using A1-A3 would return A1 A2 A3.
A1--A3 would return A1 A2 C1 A3.


22. Difference between PROC MEANS and PROC SUMMARY?

1. Proc MEANS by default produces printed output in the OUTPUT window whereas Proc SUMMARY does not. Inclusion of the PRINT option on the Proc SUMMARY statement will output results to the output window.

2. Omitting the var statement in PROC MEANS analyses all the numeric variable whereas Omitting the variable statement in PROC SUMMARY produces a simple count of observation.

How to produce output in the OUTPUT window using PROC SUMMARY? 

Use PRINT option.

proc summary data=retail print;
  class services;
  var investment;
run;


23. Can PROC MEANS analyze ONLY the character variables?

No, Proc Means requires at least one numeric variable.


24. How SUBSTR function works?

The SUBSTR function is used to extract substring from a character variable.

The SUBSTR function has three arguments:

SUBSTR ( character variable, starting point to begin reading the variable, number of characters to read from the starting point)

There are two basic applications of the SUBSTR function: 

RIGHT SIDE APPLICATION

data _null_ ;                                                                                                                           
 phone='(312) 555-1212' ;                                                                                                             
 area_cd=substr(phone, 2, 3) ;                                                                                                        
put area_cd=;                                                                                                                         
run;

Result : In the log window, it writes area_cd=312 .

LEFT SIDE APPLICATION

It is used to change just a few characters of a variable.

data _null_ ;
phone='(312) 555-1212' ;
substr(phone, 2, 3)='773' ;
put phone=;
run ;
                   
Result : The variable PHONE has been changed from (312) 555-1212 to (773) 555-1212.

Explanation : Other Character Functions

25. Difference between CEIL and FLOOR functions?

The ceil function returns the smallest integer greater than/equal to the argument whereas the floor returns the greatest integer less than/equal to the argument.

For example : ceil(4.4) returns 5 whereas floor(4.4) returns 4.


26. Difference between SET and MERGE?

SET concatenates the data sets where as MERGE matches the observations of the data sets.

SET
SAS SET Statement

MERGE

Join Horizontally



27. How to do Matched Merge and output only consisting of observations from both files?

Use IN=variable in MERGE statements. It is used for matched merge to track and select which observations in the data set from the merge statement will go to a new data set.

data readin;
merge file1(in=infile1) file2(in=infile2);
           by id;
           if infile1=infile2;
run;




28. How to do Matched Merge and output consisting of observations in file1 but not in file2, or in file2 but not in file1?

data readin;
merge file1(in=infile1) file2(in=infile2);
           by id;
           if infile1 ne infile2;
run;

SAS MERGE




29. How to do Matched Merge and output consisting of observations from only file1?

data readin;
merge file1(in=infile1) file2(in=infile2);
           by id;
           if infile1;
run;


30. How do I create a data set with observations=100, mean 0 and standard deviation 1?

data readin;
do i=1 to 100;
           temp=0 + rannor(1) * 1; 
           output; 
end; 
run; 

proc means data=readin mean stddev; 
var temp; 
run;


31. How to label values and use it in PROC FREQ?

Use PROC FORMAT to set up a format.

proc format;
value score 0 - 100=‘100-‘
101 - 200=‘101+’
other=‘others’
;

proc freq data=readin;
tables outdata;
format outdata score. ;
run;

32. How to use arrays to recode set of variables?

Recode the set of questions:  Q1,Q2,Q3...Q20 in the same way: if the variable has a value of 6 recode it to SAS missing.

data readin;
set outdata;      
array Q(20) Q1-Q20;
do i=1 to 20;
 if Q(i)=6 then Q(i)=.;
end;


33. How to use arrays to recode all the numeric variables?

Use _numeric_ and dim functions in array.

data readin;
set outdata;      
array Q(*) _numeric_;
do i=1 to dim(Q)
 if Q(i)=6 then Q(i)=.;
end;
run;

Note : DIM returns a total count of the number of elements in array dimension Q.


34. How to calculate mean for a variable by group?

Suppose Q1 is a numeric variable and Age a grouping variable. You wish to compute mean for Q1 by Age.

PROC MEANS DATA=READIN; 
VAR Q1; 
CLASS AGE;
RUN;



35. How to generate cross tabulation?

Use PROC FREQ code.

PROC FREQ DATA=auto;
  TABLES A*B ;
RUN; 

SAS will produce table of  A by B.


36. How to generate detailed summary statistics?

Use PROC UNIVARIATE code.

PROC UNIVARIATE DATA=READIN;
  CLASS Age;
  VAR Q1;
RUN; 
Note : Q1 is a numeric variable and Age a grouping variable.



37. How to count missing values for numeric variables?

Use PROC MEANS with NMISS option.


38. How to count missing values for all variables?

proc format;
value $missfmt ' '='Missing' other='Not Missing';
value missfmt .='Missing' other='Not Missing';
run;


proc freq data=one;
format _CHAR_ $missfmt.;
tables _CHAR_ / missing missprint nocum nopercent;
format _NUMERIC_ missfmt.;
tables _NUMERIC_ / missing missprint nocum nopercent;
run;


39. Describe the ways in which you can create macro variables

There are 5 ways to create macro variables:
  1. %Let
  2. Iterative %DO statement
  3. Call Symput 
  4. Proc SQl into clause 
  5. Macro Parameters.
Detailed Tutorial : SAS Macros Made Easy

40. Use of CALL SYMPUT

CALL SYMPUT puts the value from a dataset into a macro variable.

proc means data=test;
var x;
output out=testmean mean=xbar;
run;

data _null_;
set testmean;
call symput("xbarmac",xbar);
run;

%put mean of x is &xbarmac;


41. What are SYMGET and SYMPUT? 

SYMPUT puts the value from a dataset into a macro variable where as
SYMGET gets the value from the macro variable to the dataset.

Tutorial - Difference between SYMGET and SYMPUT

42. Which date function advances a date, time or datetime value by a given interval?

INTNX function advances a date, time, or datetime value by a given interval, and returns a date, time, or datetime value. Ex: INTNX(interval,start-from,number-of-increments,alignment).

43. How to count the number of intervals between two given SAS dates?

INTCK(interval,start-of-period,end-of-period) is an interval function that counts the number of intervals between two give SAS dates, Time and/or datetime.

Tutorial : INTCK Function Explained

44. Difference between SCAN and SUBSTR?

SCAN extracts words within a value that is marked by delimiters. SUBSTR extracts a portion of the value by stating the specific location. It is best used when we know the exact position of the sub string to extract from a character value.

45.  The following data step executes:

Data strings;
Text1=“MICKEY MOUSE & DONALD DUCK”;
Text=scan(text1,2,’&’);
Run;

What will the value of the variable Text be?

* DONALD DUCK [(Leading blanks are displayed using an asterisk *]

46. For what purpose would you use the RETAIN statement? 

A RETAIN statement tells SAS not to set variables to missing when going from the current iteration of the DATA step to the next. Instead, SAS retains the values.

Tutorial : RETAIN Statement

47. When grouping is in effect, can the WHERE clause be used in PROC SQL to subset data?

No. In order to subset data when grouping is in effect, the HAVING clause must be used. The variable specified in having clause must contain summary statistics.

48. How to use IF THEN ELSE in PROC SQL?

PROC SQL;
SELECT WEIGHT,
CASE
WHEN WEIGHT BETWEEN 0 AND 50 THEN ’LOW’
WHEN WEIGHT BETWEEN 51 AND 70 THEN ’MEDIUM’
WHEN WEIGHT BETWEEN 71 AND 100 THEN ’HIGH’
ELSE ’VERY HIGH’
END AS NEWWEIGHT
FROM HEALTH;
QUIT;

49. How to remove duplicates using PROC SQL?

Proc SQL noprint;
Create Table inter.Merged1 as
Select distinct * from inter.readin ;
Quit;

50. How to count unique values by a grouping variable?

You can use PROC SQL with COUNT(DISTINCT variable_name) to determine the number of unique values for a column.

51. How to merge two data sets using PROC SQL?

PROC SQL Merging


52. Difference between %EVAL and %SYSEVALF

%EVAL cannot perform arithmetic calculations with operands that have the floating point values. It is when the %SYSEVALF function comes into picture.
%let last= %eval (4.5+3.2);
%let last2=%sysevalf(4.5+3.2);
%put &last2;
53. How to debug SAS Macros

There are some system options that can be used to debug SAS Macros:
MPRINT, MLOGIC, SYMBOLGEN.

Detailed Tutorial : SAS Macros Made Easy

54. 

%let x=temp;
%let n=3;
%let x3=result;
%let temp3=result2;

Difference between &x&n , &&x&n ,  &&&x&n ?



55. How to save log in an external file

Use PROC PRINTTO
proc printto log="C:\Users\Deepanshu\Downloads\LOG2.txt" new;
run; 

56. How Data Step Merge and PROC SQL handle many-to-many relationship?

Data Step MERGE does not create a cartesian product incase of a many-to-many relationship. Whereas, Proc SQL produces a cartesian product.

SAS : Many-to-Many Merge


57. What is the use of 'BY statement' in Data Step Merge?

Without 'BY' statement, Data Step Merge performs merging without matching. In other words, the records are combined based on their relative position in the data set. The second data set gets placed to the "right" of the first data set (no matching based on the unique identifier - if data is not sorted based on unique identifier, wrong records can be merged).

When you use 'BY' statement, it matches observations according to the values of the BY variables that you specify.

58. Use of Multiple SET Statments

SAS : Use of Multiple SET Statements


59. How to combine tables vertically with PROC SQL

PROC SQL : Combine tables vertically

60. Two ways to reverse order of data

Reverse order of data

61. Which is more faster- Data Step / Proc SQL

The SQL procedure performed better with the smaller datasets (less than approx. 100 MB) whereas the data step performed better with the larger ones (more than approx. 100 MB). 

It is because the DATA step handles each record sequentially so it never uses a lot of memory, however, it takes time to process one at a time. So with a smaller dataset, the DATA step is going to take more time sending each record through. 

With the SQL procedure, everything is loaded up into memory at once. By doing this, the SQL procedure can process small datasets rather quickly since everything is available in memory. Conversely, when you move to larger datasets, your memory can get bogged down which then leads to the SQL procedure being a little bit slower compared to the DATA step which will never take up too much memory space.
If you need to connect directly to a database and pull tables from there, then use PROC SQL.
Tutorial : How Data Step and PROC SQL Works

Part II : Advanced SAS Interview Questions and Answers

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    119 Responses to "SAS Interview Questions and Answers"

    1. Thanks a lot for the wonderful questions and most of the people do mistake in this basic concept.This site is very useful and I have subscribed this channel and I am very excited whenever I will see the updates from your site. I will read all things which you have posted. Please help us to learn more on advanced SAS concepts.

      Againt thanks in advance and please continue the same.

      ReplyDelete
    2. Thank you so much.Its really helpful for me.

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. Thank you for your feedback. Glad you found it useful.

        Delete
    3. if u know the MACROS plzz..show with these type view .its must helpful for us

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. Sure. I will add some questions on SAS macros.

        Delete
      2. can u upload sas interview questions on banking domain

        Delete
    4. it was very helpful thank you. little more on macro and proc sql will be really helpful.

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. Sure. I will add some questions on macro and proc sql. Thank you for your feedback.

        Delete
    5. Thanks Man.. It really helpe..

      ReplyDelete
    6. This is awesome. I am preparing for an interview and could not have used a more well written and comprehensive article

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. Thank you. All the best for your interview.

        Delete
      2. Hi akriti.. Have u gave interview already if so please keep us updated on the interview Q's..
        Thanks

        Delete
    7. thanks a lot for such useful block of examples and concepts... it made me some what more clarified regarding the topics i was planning to be through.

      thanks again. great job

      ReplyDelete
    8. Doubt in que 3. MIssover vs Truncover...

      data test_data;
      infile datalines missover;
      input age_ 4.;
      datalines;
      1
      22
      333
      4444
      ;
      run;

      proc print data=test_data;
      run;

      The output is printing all values in missover option and not missing values, opposite of what that was mentioned on your site.

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. Use external file rather than data lines to read data into sas and you will get your answer.

        data test_data;
        infile "C:\Users\Deepanshu Bhalla\Desktop\test.txt" missover;
        input age_ 4.;
        run;

        proc print data=test_data;
        run;

        Delete
    9. First of all i would like to thanku for providing such a precise and crisp basic questions to be taken care before heading to an interview. But i guess example of Nodup was wrong and there is no use _all_ keyword .

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. Thank you for your feedback. I would request you to try NODUP example in SAS.

        Delete
      2. Yes, i checked and giving the same output.
        I have one more question. suppose we have a variable of character datatype(containing numeric data also) and we need to create two vble in such a way that numeric data and character data will come in differentiated.
        CAN someone pls help.

        Delete
      3. You can use compress function to extract text and numbers from alphanumeric string. Check out this link - http://www.listendata.com/2015/04/sas-extracting-numbers-and-text-from.html

        Delete
    10. I am learning base SAS and i find this website very easy to follow and its really helpful, i just signed up for subscription today, and looking forward to learn new updates related to sas. i am going to give test for sas certification if you can post more certification practice question it will be very helpful. thanks a lot.

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. Glad you found it helpful. Sure, i will post more certification practice questions. Thanks!

        Delete
    11. Great work man. Definitely awsome data for those , preparing for there intrrviews.
      Thanks man for this great work. And keep posting like this great information.

      ReplyDelete
    12. thanks a lot Deepanshu. this one is a very good collection of Q&A. could you please post Q&A of Proc SQL and macros.

      ReplyDelete
    13. Hey .. Great Job! Just cracked an interview because of this post.

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. Congratulations! Glad to know that :-)

        Delete
      2. Can u give us more info about the interview and Questions that were asked?? @ Anonymous

        Delete
    14. Thanks. Answers werereally h elpfull. good job.

      ReplyDelete
    15. which infile option use for read given data.

      VVVVV 3 2 3 4
      VAR 2 3
      SSSSS 3 2

      ReplyDelete
    16. Thnks ..Great Job ..can you please add more questions ?

      ReplyDelete
    17. very useful compilation thanks a lot

      ReplyDelete
    18. This comment has been removed by the author.

      ReplyDelete
    19. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR MARVELOUS WORK ,WHICH IS VERY HELP FULL, AND I REQUEST YOU POST MACROS MATERIALS

      ReplyDelete
    20. This is very helpful...great work! Thank you :)

      ReplyDelete
    21. Very helpful and great work. Can you please post the differences between proc means, proc summary and proc univariate.

      ReplyDelete
    22. Iam pushpa.I did my MSC statistics .iam learning SAS. Which project should I take either banking n finance or clinical trails .which one should really helpful to my career in analytical side

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. I would say "Banking & Finance" project as jobs in BFSI industry are more than the pharma industry, Thanks!

        Delete
    23. Good going Deepanshu... Found it really healpful...

      ReplyDelete
    24. Deepanshu, I need a analytics +sas resume for fresher, I hope you will help me.

      ReplyDelete
    25. Good set of questions.. very helpful.. keep writing..

      ReplyDelete
    26. Very good and well manage question,and also really effective for for others who really want to do these things, you have to keep and post again like this.70-410 i am a student and working on a project that is truly relate to the field of networking,if any one want to do some thing about networking then must have to visit this site.

      ReplyDelete
    27. thanks for a wonderful questions keeps going on but i need more questions on macros will u please

      ReplyDelete
    28. great job.present scanario which sector to use sas. and who r looking for job in sas, r they have any oputunite on sas domain in future... is it better course for learning?

      ReplyDelete
    29. very well done Deepanshu. There is no website like yours with such good interview questions and answers. keep going!

      ReplyDelete
    30. Nice Questions and Very Well Presented. Thank You!!!

      ReplyDelete
    31. Great article. Can you include some info on new things in SAS 9.4 version as most interviewer ask this kind of questions and there are lot more addition to the normal function in SAS 9.4. It would be great if look into this topics.

      ReplyDelete
    32. Nice questions and answers.Very much helpful.Thank You!!!!!

      ReplyDelete
    33. The Explanation for basic SAS is very useful. Can you do same thing for Macro and Array?

      ReplyDelete
    34. Hello.

      There is a mistake at question 28.

      The question was: "How to do Matched Merge and output consisting of observations in file1 but not in file2?"

      The answer in this article is wrong.

      The answer would be:
      data readin;
      merge file1(in=infile1) file2(in=infile2);
      by id;
      if infile1 = 1 and infile2 = 0;
      run;

      Your 'if' (infile1 ne infile2) outputs cases when infile1 = 1 and infile2= 0 but also cases when infile1 = 0 and infile2 = 1: i.e. respectively observations in file1 but not in file2 and observations in file2 but not in file1.

      My 'if' (infile1 = 1 and infile2 = 0) represents only cases when infile1 = 1 and infile2= 0: i.e. observations in file1 but not in file2.

      Regards.
      Cédric Guilmin

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. I have rephrased the question to make it more clear. Thanks for writing to me.

        Delete
    35. Deepanshu keep it up nice job this artical cleared my almost all questions thank u.

      ReplyDelete
    36. Dm statement ia used to clean the windows like editor,output and log and we can export the log. Let me explain is there any specific meaning for dm r any fullform for dm.

      ReplyDelete
    37. We have proc datasets it is performing append,copy,delete,modify.Though it is performing all these why we are using still all these proc procedures separately like proc copy,proc delete,proc append.Is there any limitation to proc datasets

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. PROC DELETE is faster than PROC DATASETS when you want to remove a few data sets from the library. On the other hand, if you need to delete an entire library, then PROC DATASETS is the best tool. Read about "how PROC Datasets keeps an in-memory directory"

        Delete
    38. Hi Deepanshu,

      Me planning to give the base sas certification exam by 15th Jan, Please provide me some dummy questions to clear the exam...

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. hello sir,
        I am already pursuing a course on SAS.I wanted to know is the pnline certification course required for a job?

        Delete
      2. Which online certification you are referring to? Is it base SAS certification course?Certification does not help much. At the end, you have to crack interview. What matters is your knowledge about practical application of SAS Programming. In short, It's good to be Base or Advanced SAS certified but it would not guarantee you a job.

        Delete
    39. Plz help me on this :

      Id age salary
      1 23 3000
      2 34 5000
      4 26 2000
      4 26 2000
      5 32 5000
      5 32 4000

      Output:
      Id age salary
      1 23 3000
      2 34 5000
      4 26 4000
      5 32 9000

      Kindly tell me how to achieve this. Thanks in advance. Plz help

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. using NODUPKEY BY ID WILL do the trick

        Delete
      2. data temp;
        input Id age salary;
        cards;
        1 23 3000
        2 34 5000
        4 26 2000
        4 26 2000
        5 32 5000
        5 32 4000
        ;
        run;

        proc sql;
        select distinct ID, Age, sum(salary) as salary
        from temp
        group by ID;
        quit;

        Delete
      3. Thanks a lot brother. Sas seems to be getting easier and a lot easier courtsey You and this wonderful website listen data. Amazing job.
        Congrats
        MAC

        Delete
      4. proc sort data=dsn nodupkey;
        by id;
        run;

        Delete
    40. Thankq so much..Its really helpful for me.great job..

      ReplyDelete
    41. amazing , yaar you know everything

      ReplyDelete
    42. How to reverse a set of numbers without sorting..
      For example, 2 9 6 4 3 8

      This was an interview question as well :)

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. Nice question! Check out the solution -
        data temp;
        input var1 @@;
        cards;
        2 9 6 4 3 8
        ;
        run;

        data temp2;
        do i = nobs to 1 by -1;
        set temp nobs = nobs point=i;
        output;
        end;
        stop;
        run;

        Delete
    43. Thank you Deepanshu Bhalla :)

      ReplyDelete
    44. Hello sir,
      your post has been very helpful .I am already learning sas.I have also done my M.A. in economics with specialization in Econometrics.will this be of any added advantage sir?

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. Some companies give preference to economics or statistics graduates for predictive modeling profiles. FYI - I am also an economics graduate.

        Delete
    45. Hi deepanshu....

      your content is amazing...really helpful...could u help me with this query..if a datavalue is missing in the middle of the record what infile option is to be used...i used both missover and truncover options..both resulted in the same way... i did not get the desired output...

      The following is my example:
      LANGKAMM SARAH E0045 Mechanic
      TORRES JAN E0029 Pilot
      SMITH MICHAEL E0065
      LEISTNER COLIN Mechanic
      TOMAS HARALD
      WADE KIRSTEN E0126 Pilot
      WAUGH TIM E0204 Pilot


      ReplyDelete
    46. Appreciate the work Deepanshu. It really is a crisp collection with the appropriate links for the detail.

      ReplyDelete
    47. Deepanshu, I do not have words to appreciate you. The Questionnaire you have created is a 'One-Stop-Shop' for all the SAS lovers & Users. Please continue to add on the good work. Wish you all the Best!. Regards, Rakesh

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. Thank you for your kind words. I am glad you found it helpful. Cheers!

        Delete
    48. Nice!! Good interview questions and answers for base SAS. Thanks

      ReplyDelete
    49. Really helps in understanding the concepts more clearly.

      ReplyDelete
    50. Such a nice collection of interview questions and answers. The best thing is that your site looks so user friendly and one feels like reading a book instead of webpage. Great work !!!

      ReplyDelete
    51. thank q sir ur explantion is good it is really helpfull to me

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. Glad you found it helpful. Cheers!

        Delete
      2. Dear Sir

        How to find cumulative sum of a variable.please help me
        TIA

        Delete
      3. data abcd;
        input x y;
        cards;
        1 25
        1 28
        1 27
        2 23
        2 35
        2 34
        3 25
        3 29
        ;
        run;



        data aaa;
        set abcd;
        retain z 0;
        z = z + y;
        run;

        Delete
    52. Do you have any content and interview questions and answers on SAS Graphs please post them.
      Thank you in advance.

      ReplyDelete
    53. Nice!! Good interview questions and answers for base SAS. Thanks

      ReplyDelete
    54. Awsome!!! Really helpful...pls also try to post some scenario based questions as well..that would be really great.Looking forward to it!

      ReplyDelete
    55. This comment has been removed by the author.

      ReplyDelete
    56. this was excellent stuff to go through thanks for uploading and can u upload prog 3 questions if possible

      ReplyDelete
    57. can anyone suggest the best institue in delhi for sas and will it be beneficial for B.Sc maths background student

      ReplyDelete
    58. Nice.... really very helpfull.add more questions on base sas.and please add few questions from domain too on sdtm and AdaM

      ReplyDelete
    59. I am working in sql server and .net but want to move in SAS is it a good idea?

      ReplyDelete
    60. I am Post Graduate in Statistics.I keep on following this site. I learned SAS.But as of my knowledge openings for freshers are low.I dont have working knowledge on SAS.I want to learn Advanced excel and statistical topics under excel.With excel also I have the chance to become a data analyst.I thought after that move on to SAS is easy. Is my thinking is right? If it good, what are topics that i have to learn? Can u please answer me?

      ReplyDelete
      Replies
      1. Unless you excel in VBA after you complete your session with EXCEL, I would recommend you start with SAS directly. There is less necessity to take a detour.

        Delete
    61. really helpful as language is quite simple.

      ReplyDelete
    62. This list of Q&A is really comprehensive! I spent a day and currently stopped Q26, and will continue to finish the rest tomorrow. I have watched SAS official tutorials but none of those are as helpful as the questions in this blog. I would recommend newbies, like myself, spend extra time to expand a little bit beside the scope of each question, and don't just look for answers for questions, instead treat each question seriously and key in the codes in SAS to see how the answer works. By practicing along the way, I have developed a pretty good sense of the data structure and common syntaxes. Good luck everyone!

      ReplyDelete
    63. Thanks a lot for the q&a.

      ReplyDelete
    64. If any opening related to this profile please please contact me I realy need one job 8745991176

      ReplyDelete
    65. Really this is very helpful site. Could be more helpful if scenario base questions are included. Thank you very much.

      ReplyDelete
    66. Thank you for all the questions. It helps alot

      ReplyDelete
    67. good going buddy,, found it very helpful...
      keep posting
      Thanx a ton

      ReplyDelete
    68. This comment has been removed by the author.

      ReplyDelete
    69. Thanks for this material.Really Help full alot.

      ReplyDelete
    70. This is so much helpful and easy to understand. Till now, my every query got answered through these blogs.
      Thanks a lot :)

      ReplyDelete

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